Facts & Figures
Timeline of the Patriarchs
Here, we have 2 timelines of the biblical patriarchs, beginning at the time of Adam to the death of Joseph, son of Jacob, as presented in the Genesis.
The first table simply show the genealogy of the Genesis, from a single line, from Adam to Joseph. While second table presents the history of Genesis, which for example show the date of when the Flood occurred or when God revealed his covenant to Abraham.
The Genesis Genealogy showed generations of patriarchs from Adam to Jacob and Joseph.
Due to figures - the number of years - being different in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint Bible, I have displayed both. So the chart is divided into 2 - Masoretic and Septuagint.
Most English translations, including the King James Version, are based on Masoretic Texts, written in Hebrew, which began in the 7th century CE. The oldest extant manusacript of the Masoretic Text is the Aleppo Codex, 9th century CE.
The Septuagint Bible was written in Koine Greek, in Alexandria, Egypt, during the Hellenistic period (3rd century BCE to 2nd century BCE), when Alexandrian Jews thought to make scriptures available.
|Age||In this column, it displayed the age of the end of his life. For example, Adam died at the age of 930.|
|Age of siring next patriarch||This column when a patriarch have a son that will carry the line, his age. This is what I call the "generation" number. For example, Adam was 120 years old when he became father of Seth. This number is very helpful in my calculation of the timeline.|
|Year (Birth - Death)||This chronological years or the date, starting the time of Adam's creation.
There are 2 numbers here, date of Birth and date of Death. Using the 2nd column (Age of siring next patriarch), I can work out the date in years of each generation.
Example for birth: calculating age of Adam at Seth's birth, is 130. To calculate the date for Enosh's birth, I simply add Seth's age (which is 105) to Adam's (130), so it will give me a date of year 235. So calculating the date of birth, is simply culumination of generation (2nd column).
Example for death: to get the date of when the person die, is simply using the Birth number, and adding the person age. Using Seth, we know he was born on the year 130, so we simply add 912 to the birth date, hence we get the date of death 1042.
|Age||† Age of siring
|Age||† Age of siring
|Adam||930||130||0 - 930||930||230||0 - 930||5:3-5|
|Seth||912||105||130 - 1042||912||205||230 - 1142||5:3-8|
|Enosh||905||90||235 - 1140||905||190||435 - 1340||5:6-11|
|Kenan||910||70||325 - 1235||910||170||625 - 1535||5:9-14|
|Mahalalel||895||65||395 - 1290||895||165||795 - 1690||5:12-17|
|Jared||962||162||460 - 1422||962||162||960 - 1922||5:15-20|
|Enoch||365||65||622 - 987||365||165||1122 - 1487||5:18-24|
|Methuselah||969||187||687 - 1656||969||167||1287 - 2256||5:21-27|
|Lamech||777||182||874 - 1651||753||188||1454 - 1642||5:25-31|
|Noah ‡||950||502||1056 - 2006||950||502||1642 - 2592||5-28-32; 7:6, 11; 9:24, 28-29|
|Shem||600||100||1558 - 2158||600||100||2144 - 2744||5:32; 11:10-11|
|Arpachshad||438||35||1658 - 2096||565||135||2244 - 2809||11:10-13|
|Kainan||460||130||2379 - 2839||11:12-13 (only in Septuagint)|
|Shelah||433||30||1693 - 2126||460||130||2509 - 2969||11:12-14|
|Eber||464||34||1723 - 2187||504||134||2639 - 3143||11:14-17|
|Peleg||239||30||1757 - 1996||339||130||2773 - 3112||11:16-19|
|Reu||239||32||1787 - 2026||339||132||2903 - 3242||11:18-21|
|Serug||230||30||1819 - 2049||230||130||3035 - 3265||11:20-23|
|Nahor||148||29||1849 - 1997||208||179||3165 - 3373||11:22-25|
|Terah||205||70||1878 - 2083||205||70||3344 - 3549||11:24-32|
|Abraham (Abram)||175||100||1948 - 2123||175||100||3414 - 3589||11:26-27, 29-31; 12-4; 16:16; 17:1, 17, 24; 21:3-4; 25:7-8|
|Issac||180||60||2048 - 2228||180||60||3514 - 3694||17:18, 25; 21:3-4; 25:20, 26; 35:28|
|Jacob||147||91||2108 - 2255||147||91||3574 - 3721||25:21-26; 35:28-29; 47:28|
|Joseph||110||36||2199 - 2309||110||36||3665 - 3775||30:22-24; 41:45-46, 50; 50:26|
The generation in years (or the Age of siring next patriarch) is vital for using to calculate the date, in the 2nd table (The Genesis Chronicle). Without it would be impossible to find when the Flood occur.
The Genesis Chronicle
Below is a more simple timeline of the Genesis. Notice that the year 0 is the creation of Adam and Eve. This can be compared with the current timeline (and work backward with the Jewish Era or AM). Also that most dates are approximate calculation.
From the previous table of years and date, I was able to work out when the Flood occurred.
Noah was born in the year 1056. This figure come from culuminating total all the generation of years since Adam. The Flood happened when Noah was 600, so the date would be 1656. This date actually coincide with the death of Methuselah (Noah's grandfather) died at the age of 969
Note that the date and years in this table are all based on the numbers obtained from the Masoretic Text.
|Year (Anno Mundi)||Current
|0||3966 BCE||Creation of Adam and Eve (Genesis 2).
Possible date of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3:22-24).
|130||3866 BCE||Birth of Seth (Genesis 5:3-4).|
|622||3374 BCE||Birth of Enoch (Genesis 5:18-19).|
|687||3309 BCE||Birth of Methuselah (Genesis 5:21-22).||Historical flood between Shuruppak and Kish, c. 2900 BCE.|
|930||3066 BCE||Death of Adam  (Genesis 5:5).||Etana of Kish, fl. 2800 BCE.|
|987||3009 BCE||Ascension of Enoch  to the heaven (Genesis 5:23-24).|
|1042||2954 BCE||Death of Seth  (Genesis 5:8).|
|1056||2940 BCE||Birth of Noah (Genesis 5:28-29).||Gilgamesh, Uruk, fl. c. 2700 - 2650 BCE.
Djoser, 3rd Dynasty, Egypt.
Khufu, 4th Dynasty, Egypt.
Great Pyramids of Giza built.
|1556||2440 BCE||Vision of Noah  (Genesis 6:11-22).
Noah began construction of the Ark.
|Sargon the Great, c. 2334 - 2279 BCE, Agade; established Akkadian dynasty.
Unas, d. 2325 BCE, 5th Dynasty, Egypt.
|1558||2442 BCE||Birth of Shem (Genesis 5:32).|
|1651||2345 BCE||Death of Lamech (777) (Genesis 5:31).||3rd Dynasty of Ur, c. 2112 - c. 2004 BCE.
|1656||2340 BCE||Death of Methuselah  (Genesis 5:27).
Noah  and his family boarded the Ark.
The Great Flood (Genesis 7 & 8).
|Ur-Nammu, 2113 - 2095 BCE.
Shulgi, 2095 - 2047 BCE.
Sesostris I, 1908 - 1875, 12th Dynasty, Egypt.
|1830||2166 BCE||Possible date of God confounding those building the Tower of Babel, according to the Book of Jubilees.|
|1948||2048 BCE||Birth of Abraham, possibly in Ur (Genesis 11:26-27).||Sesostris II, 1844 - 1837 BCE, 12th Dynasty.
Amenemhet III, 1818 - 1770 BCE, 12th Dynasty.
|1958||2038 BCE||Birth of Sarah.||Hammurabi, c. 1792 - 1750 BCE, Babylon.|
|2006||1990 BCE||Death of Noah  (Genesis 9:28-29).||Sebeknefru, c. 1760 - 1756 BCE, 12th Dynasty.|
|2023||1973 BCE||Abraham  left Haran with Sarah and Lot, after his vision of God. (Genesis 12:1-8)
Abraham migrated to Bethel in Canaan (Genesis 12:8).
|2024-2033?||1972-1963 BCE?||Abraham fled to Egypt during the famine in Canaan (Genesis 12:10-20).
Abraham defeated the army of Chedorlaomer and 3 other kings. (Genesis 14:1-17)
Melcizedek blessed Abraham. (Genesis 14:18-24)
|2033||1963 BCE||Abraham  received the covenant from God (Genesis 15:8).||13th dynasty in Egypt (c. 1773 - 1650 BCE).|
|2034||1962 BCE||Abraham  sired a son Ishmael by his concubine Hagar. (Genesis 16:16)|
|2047||1949 BCE||New covenant. Circumcision of Abraham (99) and Ishmael (13). Abraham's name change from Abram to Abraham (Genesis 17:24-25)
Possible year of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorroh (Genesis 19:1-29).
|2048||1948 BCE||Birth of Issac. Abraham is 100 and Sarah is 90. (Genesis 21:1-7)|
|2049||1947 BCE||Abraham sent Hagar and Ishmael away. (Genesis 21:8-21)|
|2083||1913 BCE||Death of Terah  at Haran (Genesis 11:32).|
|2085||1911 BCE||Sarah  died at Hebron; she is buried at Machpelah Cave, near Mamre. (Genesis 23:1-2)|
|2088||1908 BCE||Issac  married Rebecca, daughter of Bethuel. (Genesis 25:20)|
|2108||1888 BCE||Birth of Jacob and Esau; Issac was 60 (Genesis 25:26).||Ammisaduqa, c. 1646 - c. 1626 BCE, Babylon.|
|2123||1873 BCE||Death of Abraham ; he was buried at Machpelah Cave, beside Sarah (Genesis 25:7-11).||Hyksos seized control of Egypt, c. 1630 BCE and established the 15th Dynasty (1630-1521 BCE).|
|2158||1838 BCE||Death of Shem  (Genesis 11:11).|
|2171||1825 BCE||Death of Ishmael .|
|2180-2200||1816-1796 BCE||Jacob  lived in Mesopotamia, working for his uncle, Laban, son of Bethuel (for 20 years: Genesis 31:38).|
|2187||1809 BCE||Jacob  married Leah and Rachel, daughters of Laban (Genesis 29:14-30).|
|2190||1806 BCE||Birth of Levi; Jacob was 82. (Genesis 29:34)|
|2191||1805 BCE||Birth of Judah; Jacob was 83. (Genesis 29:35)|
|2199||1797 BCE||Birth of Joseph; Jacob was 91. (Genesis 30:22-24)|
|2200||1796 BCE||Jacob  and his family return to Canaan.
Jacob receives the name Israel at Peniel (Genesis 32:22-32).
Reconcilation of Jacob and Esau.
|2216||1780 BCE||Jacob's sons sold Joseph  into slavery (Genesis 37:12-36).
Became slave of Potiphar, an Egyptian captain of the palace guards.
|Ahmose, c. 1539 - 1514 BCE, Egypt; founder of the 18th Dynasty (1539-1292 BCE).|
|2228||1768 BCE||Death of Rachel & birth of Benjamin (Genesis 35:16-20).
Death of Issac , in Mamre (Genesis 35:27-29).
|2229||1767 BCE||Joseph  became governor of Egypt (Genesis 41:45-46).
Joseph married Asenath, daughter of the priest Potiphera of Heliopolis (Genesis 41:50).
Beginning of the Seven Years of Plenty.
|2236||1760 BCE||Beginning of the Seven Years of Famine (Genesis 41:53-57).|
|2238||1758 BCE||Jacob  and his family moved to Goshen in Egypt. (Genesis 47:9)||Ahmose's capture of Avaris, 1521 BCE.|
|2244||1752 BCE||Seven Years of Famine ended.||Ahmose capture Hyksos' stronghold, Sharuhen, in Palestine, c. 1518 BCE.
Amenhotep I, c. 1514 - 1493 BCE, Egypt.
|2255||1741 BCE||Death of Jacob  at Goshen (Genesis 49:33); he is buried at Machpelah Cave.|
|2309||1741 BCE||Death of Joseph  (Genesis 50:22-26).||Hatshepsut, 1479 - 1458 BCE.
Thutmose III, 1479 - 1426 BCE.
|2327||1687 BCE||Death of Levi  (Exodus 6:16).|
Problem of Dating the period between Genesis and Exodus
When it comes to dating the interval between the Genesis and the Exodus, we have this problem. It would seem simple enough, considering that there are short generations between Levi and Moses.
In various translations of the Bible, Exodus 12:40-41 says that the Israelites have lived in Egypt for 430 years:
And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
If the above passages are correct, then the Israelites were in Egypt, from the time of Jacob settled in Egypt, to Moses leaving Egypt with his fellow-Israelites, would be 430 years. This would seem incredibly excessive, given that there were only 1 and 2 generations between Levi and Moses.
We know that Jacob arrived in Egypt in 2238 AM. That would mean Moses' arrival in Mount Sinai with the Israelites was in the year 2668 AM.
Unfortunately, the Genesis provide no date or year as to when Jacob had each of his 12 sons, nor how old Jacob was, with each birth. It would be difficult to work out but not impossible.
Here are the ages and dates that we do know about Jacob, Joseph and Levi:
- Jacob (and Esau) was born when Isaac was 60 years old (2108 AM) - Genesis 25:26.
- Jacob served Laban for 20 years - Genesis 31:38; seven years before he married Leah and Rachel.
- Joseph was 30 when he served the king - Genesis 41:45-46.
- Jacob arrived in Egypt at age 130 (2238 AM) - Genesis 47:9.
- Jacob died in Egypt, at age 147 (2255 AM) - Genesis 47:28.
- Joseph died at age 110 - Genesis 50:26.
- Levi died at age 137 - Exodus 6:16.
To work out what age Joseph was, we need to work out when Jacob arrived, and when the famine began. Fortunately it mentioned that 2 years after the 7-year of famine began, Jacob came to Egypt at age 130, which it was in the year 2238 AM. Since 7 years of plenty plus 2 of 7 years of famine, we worked out that Joseph age at 2238, 39 year of age. So freedom of slavery and 1st year of service (and marriage) at age 30, would mean this happened in the year 2229 AM (because 2238 minus 9 years make 2229).
From these figures and age, we have worked out when Joseph was born, and that's 2199 AM.
A year later (2200 AM), Jacob returned back to his father's home at age 92. With these figures, we can map out, when Jacob's age and date, such as when the service to Laban began (2180 AM, at age 72) and dates of Jacob's marriage (2187 AM, 79) and most of his children's birth.
It is trickier, to work out the date of birth of each of Jacob's sons (and daughter) who were born in Haran. But since we now know the date of marriage and end of Jacob's service to Laban, we can do some guess-work.
Let's say that Jacob had a child each succeeding year, until Joseph was born. So Reuben, the eldest son of Leah was born a year later after the marriage, that mean Jacob was 80, when he had Reuben in 2188. Simeon in 2189, Levi in 2190 and Judah in 2191.
Since we know which year Levi was born, we can now easily work out that he was 48 when he arrived in Egypt in 2238 AM; and died in the year 2327 AM, at age 137.
Unfortunately, we don't have information of when Levi's son and grandson were born, nor that of his daughter.
What is known is that Levi had 3 sons - Gershon, Kohath and Merari (Genesis 46:11), and they were all born at some time before they arrived in Egypt. And Kohath was the father of Amram, who was father of Moses.
Levi's daughter, Jochebed is a complete mystery. All we know about her, is that she married her nephew, Amram, and became mother to Aaron, Miriam and Moses. We don't know if she was born before or after Levi went to Egypt with his father and brothers.
And if we are to believe that the Israelites had lived in Egypt for 430 years, then there's 261 years between the time of Levi's death and Moses leading people out of Egypt to receive the Ten Commandments. This gap is huge.
(Calculation: 430 years - 80 - 89 = 261 years, because Levi lived in Egypt for 89 years.)
Even if Jochebed was born on the year of her father's death in 2327, that mean Jochebed would be 261-year old, when Moses is born, which is clearly impossible. Hence, the 430 years in Exodus 12:40 is wrong.
Even the generations between Noah and the birth of Abraham (Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah), 9 generations that amounts to only 370 years. So how could 2 generations (Kohath and Amram) or one generation (Jochebed) make 261 years.
An alternative date can be given, if we accept Paul's statement in Galatians 3:17.
That the 430 years began when Abraham received the covenant from God, Genesis 15. It was the same year that Ishmael was born, when Abraham was 86, in the year 2034 AM. Paul's letter is saying that the Law (Ten Commandments) came 430 years after Abraham's covenant.
This mean the date for the Exodus and receiving the Ten Commandments would be in 2464 AM, instead of 2668 AM.
At the very least, using the new dates, Jochebed would be 137-year old when she gave birth to Moses. The age of 137 is better than 261 years, but it is still excessive, and improbable.
A third alternative, is using the same verse in Exodus - 12:40, but using a different translation of the bible - the Septuagint Bible. The Septuagint Bible was translated into Greek in Egypt, in the 3rd-2nd century BCE.
The Septuagint clearly indicate that the Israelites lived in both Canaan and Egypt for 430 years before their departure from Egypt with Moses, while the other translations of the same verse, only indicated that the Israelites were only in Egypt for 430 years.
And since in every translations say either "Israelites", "Israelite People" or "Children of Israel", then Paul's statement about the period of 430 years between the covenant of Abraham and Moses receiving new law, don't ring true, because technically, Abraham and Isaac were not "Israelites".
And Exodus include both Canaan and Egypt in the 430 years, then it would have started when Jacob brought his family to Canaan, after his 20-year services to his father-in-law, Laban. This would put the date to the year 2200 AM. They stayed in Canaan for 38 years before they migrated to Egypt, in the year 2238 AM. So 430 years would mean that Moses left Egypt and brought the Israelites to Mount Sinai for the new law in 2630 AM.
The number of years between the death of Levi and the birth of Moses would be 223 years; and this number would still be too excessive.
If we were to accept the time that 430 years start with Abraham's Covenant, then here are the following dates:
|Jewish Era (AM)||Current Dating||Biblical Events||Historical Events|
|1056||2940 BCE||Birth of Noah.|
|1656 AM||2340 BCE||Noah's Flood .|
|2033 AM||1963 BCE||God gave the Covenant to Abraham .||13th dynasty in Egypt (c. 1773 - 1650 BCE).|
|2108 AM||1888 BCE||Birth of Jacob.|
|2190 AM||1806 BCE||Birth of Levite.|
|2238 AM||1758 BCE||Jacob  and family in Egypt. (Levite would have been 48.)|
|2255 AM||1741 BCE||Death of Jacob .|
|2327||1687 BCE||Death of Levite .|
|2383 AM||1513 BCE||Birth of Moses|
|2463 AM||1533 BCE||Moses  leading the Israelites out of Egypt.||Seti I (1296 - 1279 BCE).|
|2503 AM||1493 BCE||Death of Moses .
Beginning of the Canaan invasion, led by Joshua.
|Ramesses II (1279 - 1212 BCE).
Battle of Kadesh, between Egyptians and Hittites (1274 BCE).
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